Laboratory testing is not about the upper and lower limit of norms. Now of course those do play their part. But it's moreso about looking at the ratios and patterns of various markers and being able to decipher trends. It really is an art. Youhave absolute and functional ranges and when things reach the absolute ranges that’s when we name the illness. Howeverevery illness has a course and if we can identify that course and intervene before you reach the absolute range then theoutcomes for the patient are much more splendid. Think about it like this if Im running a 100 yard dash I don’t just snapmy fingers and end up on the other side of the finish line. I actually have to run through the 10 yard line and the 20 yardline and 30 and so on. Now on that journey you will run through some functional changes and and we should be able tosay I don’t like where this is heading how about we step in before things get out of hand. If we can locate an issue at let'ssay the 60 yard line we can now intervene earlier instead of waiting until you’re crawling across the finish line. Overall, itis important to consider reference ranges as a guide, but not as a definitive rule. It is important to work with a healthcareprovider to interpret test results and to consider an individual's unique health needs and circumstances.